1. Ways of infection and development mechanisms
  2. Clinical manifestations
  3. Treatment
  4. Prophylaxis
  5. Coronavirus prevention measures

Coronavirus is an acute viral disease characterized by predominant lesions of the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract. Coronavirus is a zoonotic infection, which means it can be transmitted to humans from animals.

Ways of infection and development mechanisms

The causes of the coronavirus are mutations that result in a new type of virus. The source of coronavirus infection is usually a sick person. At the same time, the period of contagion is indefinitely long.

The source of the coronavirus can be wild and domestic animals, monkeys, birds, snakes and other animals. The source of the new type of exciter (2019-nCov) was presumably bats.

The virus is transmitted by airborne, airborne dust, faecal-oral routes. Transmission factors include nasopharyngeal secretions, vomiting masses, faeces of birds, animals and sick people.

People’s susceptibility to coronavirus is very high, all age groups are susceptible to the disease. Antigenic heterogeneity of viruses causes a significant frequency of re-infection with agents of other serological types.
To date, the pathogenetic mechanisms of coronavirus infection have not been sufficiently studied. The entrance gate for infection is the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. With 2019-nCov, the infection spreads rapidly to the bronchi and lungs.

In the faecal-oral mechanism of transmission, the disease manifests itself in the form of lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.

The disease is accompanied by the synthesis of antibodies, which do not guarantee protection against re-infection.

Clinical manifestations

For most coronavirus infections the incubation period is limited to 2-3 days. However, for Coronavirus 2019-nCov this period may vary from 1 to 14 days (10 days on average).

Throughout this period, a person can infect others. The disease occurs most often as common flu, parainfluenza or any other acute respiratory infection with all its characteristic features.

At the initial stage of infection with the new type of pathogen signs of coronavirus coincide with all the signs of a common cold: dry cough, weakness, temperature rise. Some patients have eye damage (conjunctivitis) and diarrhoea. If the disease occurs in a mild form, inflammation of the lungs does not develop and the entire pathological process is limited to weak symptoms. In such cases, the temperature may rise slightly or remain within normal limits.

With severe forms of the disease, the patient’s condition deteriorates rapidly, fever rises very high, unproductive persistent cough, respiratory failure develops. The patient’s condition worsens considerably if there are related diseases.


Treatment of mild to moderate coronavirus includes symptomatic treatment – fever medications, cough medicines, cold medicines, etc.
The treatment of severe coronavirus forms is based on medication.

Corticosteroids are prescribed for progressive deterioration of the clinical picture, prolonged lymphopenia, reduced blood oxygen saturation.
The use of antibiotics, artificial ventilation of the lungs is shown in the development of severe complications.

Good results were obtained when plasma was administered to severe patients with SARS.


To date, no specific measures to prevent coronavirus – the vaccine has not yet been developed.

It is advisable to be at home if you have the slightest symptoms of the disease.

In the period of high morbidity, it is necessary to limit contacts with people around you as much as possible, avoid crowding, do not visit places of large crowds.

Coronavirus prevention measures:

  • not to visit regions where coronavirus infection is most common;
  • wear personal protective equipment (masks);
  • to wash your hands regularly;
  • restrict contacts at close range;
  • more outdoor walks in parks, squares, away from people;
  • strengthen local immunity (observe the temperature regime in the room – 18-20 degrees, maintain the necessary humidity – from 40 to 60%);
  • to ventilate the living quarters more often;
  • moisturize the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract with saline solutions.